Yes, you can get historical data going back up to 4 years using the Alexa Web Information Service. Note that you must be a programmer in order to use this service.
Site Overview pages only show rank data for the last year. Rank, reach %, pageviews %, pageviews/user, bounce %, and time on site data going back 3 years is available in Site Comparisons.* To get older data you can use the Traffic History "Action" of the Alexa Web Information Service . The Traffic History action gives programmatic access to Alexa Rank, Reach, and Pageviews going back up to 4 years.
To get the data you will need to Sign up for the Alexa Web Information Service and modify one of the sample programs. After subscribing, you can find Getting Started steps by clicking here.
*Site Comparisons displays historical data for the past 6 months by default. Additional date ranges are available with our Alexa Pro Insight, Advanced, and Agency plans.