Yes, you can get historical data going back up to 4 years using the Alexa Web Information Service at http://aws.amazon.com/awis/. Note that you must be a programmer in order to use this service.
Site Overview pages only show rank data for the last year. Rank, reach %, pageviews %, pageviews/user, bounce %, and time on site data going back 3 years is available in Site Comparisons.* To get older data you can use the Traffic History "Action" of the Alexa Web Information Service . The Traffic History action gives programmatic access to Alexa Rank, Reach, and Pageviews going back up to 4 years.
To get the data you will need to Sign up for the Alexa Web Information Service and modify one of the sample programs. You can find Getting Started steps here: https://aws.amazon.com/awis/getting-started/.
*Site Comparisons displays historical data for the past 6 months by default. Additional date ranges are available with our Alexa Pro Insight, Advanced, Agency, and Advanced High Traffic plans.